Thursday, October 31, 2013

American BLACK History #23....Education

Black Education

The following entries are related to this category:

Brilliant Boston...AMAZING 9 year old...America Spy trouble....

















Sleep Is Critical for Brain Detoxification, Groundbreaking Research Finds

October 31, 2013 | 
By Dr. Mercola
Scientists have long tried to tease out the purpose of sleep, and countless studies have concluded that sleep is deeply interconnected with your health in a myriad of ways. As just one example, previous research has found that sleep deprivation has the same effect on your immune system as physical stress or illness.1
Quite simply, even if you do everything else right, if you don’t sleep enough, your health and well-being will still suffer. You may even die prematurely, should poor sleep plague you long-term.
Now, researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) Center for Translational Neuromedicine believe they may have discovered yet another clue as to why sleep is mandatory for good health—especially brain health.
Their report, published in the journal Science,2 reveals that your brain has a unique method of removing toxic waste through what’s been dubbed the glymphatic system.3, 4, 5, 6, 7
The clincher is that this system ramps up its activity during sleep, thereby allowing your brain to clear out toxins, including harmful proteins linked to brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s for example.
What’s more, they discovered that your brain cells actually shrink by about 60 percent during sleep, which allows for more efficient waste removal. According to lead author Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., featured in the video above:
“This study shows that the brain has different functional states when asleep and when awake. In fact, the restorative nature of sleep appears to be the result of the active clearance of the by-products of neural activity that accumulate during wakefulness.”

What Is the Glymphatic System?

In your body, the lymphatic system is the system responsible for eliminating cellular waste products. However, the lymphatic system does not include your brain. The reason for this is that your brain is a closed system, protected by the blood-brain barrier, which controls what can go through and what cannot.
In a previous animal study,8 Dr. Nedergaard showed that the brain actually hasits own unique waste disposal system, similar to that of the lymphatic system. This system, called the glymphatic system, “piggybacks” on the blood vessels in your brain. The “g” in glymphatic is a nod to “glial cells”—the brain cells that manage this system.
By pumping cerebral spinal fluid through your brain’s tissues, the glymphatic system flushes the waste, from your brain, back into your body’s circulatory system. From there, the waste eventually reaches your liver, where it’s ultimately eliminated.
During sleep, the glymphatic system becomes 10 times more active than during wakefulness. Simultaneously, your brain cells are reduced in size by about 60 percent.
This creates more space in-between the cells, giving the cerebrospinal fluid more space to flush out the debris. Amyloid-beta, for example—proteins that form the notorious plaque found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients—is removed in significantly greater quantities during sleep. As stated by Time Magazine:9
“The findings raise interesting questions about how sleep may affect the progression of Alzheimer’s or other neurogenerative disorders, but they also provide a strong warning for anybody who skips sleep. The short version: don’t.”
According to Dr. Nedergaard:10
“The brain only has limited energy at its disposal and it appears that it must choose between two different functional states — awake and aware or asleep and cleaning up. You can think of it like having a house party. You can either entertain the guests or clean up the house, but you can’t really do both at the same time.
...These findings have significant implications for treating ‘dirty brain’ disease like Alzheimer’s. Understanding precisely how and when the brain activates the glymphatic system and clears waste is a critical first step in efforts to potentially modulate this system and make it work more efficiently.”

How Sleep Influences Your Physical Health

Sleep is usually one of the first things people sacrifice when the going gets tough, and this could be a critical mistake. First of all, significant memory impairment can occur after a single night of poor sleep—meaning sleeping only 4 to 6 hours. It also has a detrimental impact on your ability to think clearly the next day, and decreases your problem solving ability.
But foggy-headedness and forgetfulness are the least of your worries should you ignore your poor sleeping habits. Aside from impacting your immune function as briefly mentioned earlier, poor sleep is now known to have multi-varied detrimental effects on your health, courtesy of your circadian system, which "drives" the rhythms of biological activity at the cellular level. Disruptions to this biological clock tend to cascade outward throughout your entire body.  For example, interrupted or impaired sleep can:
Increase your risk of heart disease.11Harm your brain by halting new cell production. Sleep deprivation can increase levels of corticosterone (a stress hormone), resulting in fewer new brain cells being created in your hippocampus.
Impair your ability to lose excess pounds or maintain your ideal weight. This is likely the effect of altered metabolism, because when you’re sleep deprived, leptin (the hormone that signals satiety) falls, while ghrelin (which signals hunger) rises.Contribute to a pre-diabetic state, making you feel hungry even if you've already eaten, which can wreak havoc on your weight.
Accelerate tumor growth, primarily due to disrupted melatoninproduction. Melatonin inhibits the proliferation of a wide range of cancer cell types, as well as triggering cancer cell apoptosis (self destruction). The hormone also interferes with the new blood supply tumors require for their rapid growth (angiogenesis)Contribute to premature aging by interfering with your growth hormone production, normally released by your pituitary gland during deep sleep (and during certain types of exercise, such ashigh intensity interval training).
 Raise your blood pressure.Increase your risk of dying fromany cause.

Furthermore, lack of sleep can further exacerbate chronic diseases such as:
Parkinson'sAlzheimer'sMultiple Sclerosis (MS)
Gastrointestinal tract disordersKidney diseaseBehavioral problems in children

Why You Shouldn’t Reach For a Sleeping Pill When You Can’t Sleep...

Chronic lack of sleep has a cumulative effect when it comes to disrupting your health, so you can’t skimp on sleep on weekdays, thinking you’ll “catch up” over the weekend. You need consistency. Generally speaking, adults need between six and eight hours of sleep every night. There are plenty of exceptions though. Some people might need as little as five hours a night, while others cannot function optimally unless they get nine or 10 hours.

My strong recommendation and advice is quite simply to listen to your body. If you feel tired when you wake up, you probably need more sleep. Frequent yawning throughout the day is another dead giveaway that you need more shut-eye. Personally, I find that when I am reading during the day, if my eyes close and I tend to doze off, I know I did not get enough sleep the night before. However, above all, should insomnia strike, don’t make the mistake of reaching for a sleeping pill.
Not only do sleeping pills not address any of the underlying causes of insomnia, researchers have repeatedly shown that sleeping pills don’t work, but your brain is being tricked into thinking they do... One analysis found that, on average, sleeping pills help people fall asleep approximately 10 minutes sooner, and increase total sleep time by a mere 15-20 minutes. They also discovered that while most sleeping pills caused poor, fragmented sleep, they induced amnesia, so upon waking, the participants could not recall how poorly they’d actually slept!

In terms of health consequences, this could end up being worse than not sleeping and being aware of that fact. At least then you’d be encouraged to find and address the root cause of your sleeplessness. Besides not working as advertised, sleeping pills have also been linked to significant adverse health effects, including a nearly four-fold increase in the risk of death, and a 35 percent increased risk of cancer.

How to Optimize Your Sleep

Below are half a dozen of my top guidelines for promoting good sleep. For a comprehensive sleep guide, please see my article "33 Secrets to a Good Night's Sleep."
  1. Avoid watching TV or using your computer at night—or at least about an hour or so before going to bed—as these technologies can have a significantly detrimental impact on your sleep. TV and computer screens emit blue light; nearly identical to the light you're exposed to outdoors during the day. This tricks your brain into thinking it's still daytime, thereby shutting down melatonin secretion.
  2. Under normal circumstances, your brain starts secreting melatonin between 9 or 10 pm, which makes you sleepy. When this natural secretion cycle is disrupted, due to excessive light exposure after sunset, insomnia can ensue.
  3. Sleep in complete darkness, or as close to it as possible. Even the slightest bit of light in the room can disrupt your internal clock and your pineal gland's production of melatonin and serotonin. So close your bedroom door, and get rid of night-lights. Refrain from turning on any light at all during the night, even when getting up to go to the bathroom. Cover up your clock radio.
  4. Make sure to cover your windows—I recommend using blackout shades or drapes.
  5. Keep the temperature in your bedroom no higher than 70 degrees F. Many people keep their homes and particularly their upstairs bedrooms too warm. Studies show that the optimal room temperature for sleep is between 60 to 68 degrees. Keeping your room cooler or hotter can lead to restless sleep. This is because when you sleep, your body's internal temperature drops to its lowest level, generally about four hours after you fall asleep. Scientists believe a cooler bedroom may therefore be most conducive to sleep, since it mimics your body's natural temperature drop.
  6. Take a hot bath 90 to 120 minutes before bedtime. This increases your core body temperature, and when you get out of the bath it abruptly drops, signaling your body that you are ready for sleep.
  7. Check your bedroom for electro-magnetic fields (EMFs). These can disrupt your pineal gland and the production of melatonin and serotonin, and may have other negative effects as well. To do this, you need a gauss meter. You can find various models online, starting around $50 to $200. Some experts even recommend pulling your circuit breaker before bed to shut down all power in your house.
  8. Move alarm clocks and other electrical devices away from your bed. If these devices must be used, keep them as far away from your bed as possible, preferably at least three feet. This serves at least two functions. First, it can be stressful to see the time when you can't fall asleep, or wake up in the middle of the night. Secondly, the glow from a clock radio can be enough to suppress melatonin production and interfere with your sleep. Cell phones, cordless phones and their charging stations should ideally be kept three rooms away from your bedroom to prevent harmful EMFs.


Sleeping Well Is Part of a Healthy Lifestyle Plan

There's convincing evidence showing that if you do not sleep enough, you're really jeopardizing your health. Everybody loses sleep here and there, and your body can adjust for temporary shortcomings. But if you develop a chronic pattern of sleeping less than five or six hours a night, then you're increasing your risk of a number of health conditions, including weakening your immune system and increasing your risk of degenerative brain disorders.....


Wednesday, October 30, 2013

American BLACK History #28.....the NAVY

African American Milestones in Naval History

original US Medal of honor.Eight African Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Civil War.
The following African American individuals served in the 1860s Navy, or who performed notable services in areas related to the Navy of that time:
  • William Tilghman (or Tillman), recaptured the schooner S.J. Waring from a Confederate prize crew on 16 July 1861.
  • Robert Smalls (1839-1915), piloted the Confederate steamer Planter to freedom, 13 May 1862.
  • Robert Blake, won the Medal of Honor while serving on USSMarblehead during an action off Legareville, South Carolina, 25 December 1863. 
  • Joachim Pease (1842-????), won the Medal of Honor while serving on USS Kearsarge during the battle with CSSAlabama, 19 June 1864.
  • John Lawson (1837-1919), won the Medal of Honor while serving on USS Hartford during the Battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864.
  • James Mifflin (1839-????), won the Medal of Honor while serving on USS Brooklyn during the Battle of Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864.
  • Aaron Anderson, won the Medal of Honor while serving on USS Wyandank during an action in Mattox Creek, Virginia, 17 March 1865.
  • Frank Allen, served on USS Franklin in European waters in 1868.
Sailors Identified

African Americans and the U.S. Navy 1860s

Congressional Medal of Honor Society
Photo #: NH 79956: image of Medal of Honor awardedFireman First Class Robert Penn earned the Medal of Honor for valor aboard USS Iowa on 14 December 1898More Info

Info on Medals
Photo of  Navy's Medal of Honor citation log  - Reads - Medal of Honor for jumping overboard from the 
USS Jamestown Decr 20th 1883 at the Navy Yard, New York and rescuing from drowning A. A. George, an Apprentice, who had fallen overboard while crossing the gang plank between the USS Jamestown and Gautic.
 Ordered Dect 29th 1883,  Received Feby 2nd 1884. Sent Feby 2nd 1884 Acknowledged Feby 11th 1884.Photograph of Ordinary Seaman Robert Sweeney's second entry in the Secretary of the Navy's Medal of Honor citation log, NARA RG 24, Entry 372-A. While USS Jamestown was at New York, Navy Yard on 20 December 1883, he rescued a shipmate, A.A. George, who had fallen overboard and was drowning. Sweeney's first Medal of Honor was when he saved a shipmate from drowning while serving on boardUSS Kearsarge at Hampton Roads, VA, 26 October 1881.African Americans and the U.S. Navy 1870s - 1880s
Yeoman (F) Uniform
Catalog #: 1983.0159.03    Accession #: 1983.0159  Credit: Division of Military History and Diplomacy, National Museum of American History.First black females enlisted in the Navy during WWI
More Info 

Selected Images
Photo of Medal of Honor awarded with dull bronze finishShips Cook Third Class Doris Miller, Mess Attendant First Class Leonard Roy Harmon, and Ships Cook Third Class William Pinckney earned the Navy Cross during World War II; Alonzo Swann and five other African Americans received their awards in 1997 for heroism aboard USS Intrepid on 29 October 1944.Doris Miller 

Ship Named in honor of William Pinckney
Image of Holmes ID card from U.S. Naval Air Station New Orleans LAOscar Holmes was sworn in on 28 September 1942 as an ensign, A-V(p), making him the first African American Naval Aviator. Holmes entered the Navy as a qualified pilot, and was not required to attend basic pilot training.More info
group photo of the "Golden Thirteen" - single largest group of black officers commissioned during World War II
More Info 
Jesse Brown in the cockpit of an F4U-4 <I>Corsair</I> fighter, circa 1950.Brown was the first African-American to be trained by the Navy as a Naval Aviator, receiving his designation as a Naval Aviator on 21, Octiber 1948.
More Info 
symbol for Seaman apprentice, which is the rank just after recruit.Edna Young - first black enlisted female to serve in the regular Navy in 1948; retired as a Chief
Chief Petty Officer Info
private first class badge.Annie Neal Graham - first black female to enlist in the United States Marine Corps on 8 September 1949
U.S. Marine Corps History Division
File photo (April 19, 2007) - Capt. Thomas David Parham, the Navy’s first black Sailor to be promoted to the rank of captain.Chaplain Thomas Parham - the first black chaplain in the Navy and the first African American naval officer promoted to the rank of captain in February 1966More Info
captain Contres signing documentDepartment of Defense established the Defense Race Relations Institute in the summer of 1971; it is known today as the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) and Captain Kathlene Contres is its CommandantDefense Equal Opportunity Management Institute
Samuel L. Gravely, Jr.- many firsts to his credit including the first black to serve on a battleship, to command a combat ship and a fleet; first black officer promoted to flag rank; retired as a Vice AdmiralPhotos 


USS Gravely (DD 107)


Retirement Video
Picture of Joan C. BynumNavy Nurse Joan C. Bynum, first black female promoted to the rank of captain in 1978
Navy Nurse Corps Association
 Retired Rear Adm. Lillian Fishburne, the Navy's first female African American flag officer.Lillian Fishburne and Barry C. Black - first black female and 1st black chaplain promoted to flag rank in February 1998; After retirement in 2003, Black was elected to serve as the 62nd Chaplain of the U.S. Senate making him the 1st African American, Seventh Day Adventist, and military chaplain in that positionChaplin Corps
photo of Michelle Howard at a podiumMichelle J. Howard - many firsts to her credit including the first female United States Naval Academy graduate to be promoted to the rank of admiral, first black female to command a combatant ship, and the first black female promoted to a 2 star admiralBiography
retired Admiral Reason giving a speachAdmiral J. Paul Reason-first black promoted to 4 stars in 1996
MCPOCG badgeAngela M. McShane - first African American woman promoted to Chief Petty Officer and Master Chief Petty Officer (1999) in the United States Coast GuardMaster Chief Petty Officers of the Navy 

History of the Chief Petty Officer Grade
Rear Adm. Erroll M. Brown, the Coast Guard's first African American flag officerErroll M. Brown - a 1972 Coast Guard Academy graduate became the first black admiral in the US Coast Guard in 1998More Info
Members of the Navy's Centennial Seven, a term used to denote the only African-American officers to command submarines in the 20th Century."Centennial Seven" - a term used to denote the only African-American officers to command submarines in the 20th Century. Navy's Centennial Seven

African American Submariners
Astronaut and Navy Captain Winston E. Scott goes for a walk during a space shuttle mission, c. 1997.Astronaut and Navy Captain Winston E. Scott was selected by NASA in March 1992. He served as a mission specialist on STS-72 in 1996 and STS-87 in 1997, and has logged a total of 24 days, 14 hours and 34 minutes in space, including 3 spacewalks totaling 19 hours and 26 minutes.Biographical Data
Capt. Vernice Armour, photo used with permission.Captain Vernice Armour, USMC - earned her wings in 2001; the Department of Defense acknowledged her as the first female African American combat pilot in the military during Operation Iraqi Freedom; she completed two tours in the Persian Gulf; after leaving the Marine Corps, she became an international motivation speaker.Leadership and Growth
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Installations and Environment. B. J. “Buddy” Penn, a retired naval aviator and captain, the first black to serve as the Acting Secretary of the Navy in 2009Biography
In 2009, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that USNS Medgar Evers (T-AKE 13), a dry cargo ship, would be named in honor of the slain civil rights leaderShip named after Civil Rights Activist
Vice Admiral Melvin L. Williams and RADM Victor (Vic) Guillory commanding the Navy’s Second and Fourth Fleets, respectively in 2009; this is the 1st time in naval history that two African Americans had such commandsRear Adm Guillory Biography

Vice Adm Williams Biography

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