Wednesday, June 11, 2014







Vitamins & Minerals in Milk

This page describes the Vitamins and Minerals present in milk, and the Effects of Heat Treatments and Light Exposure on the Vitamin and Mineral Content in Milk. A description of the nutritional function of vitamins and minerals is provided on the Nutritional Components in Milk page in the Nutrition Factssection. For more details on the vitamins and minerals in milk, see references by Flynn et al. (1997)Fox and McSweeney (1998)Holt (1995), and Öste et al. (1997).

Vitamins in Milk

Vitamins have many roles in the body, including metabolism co-factors, oxygen transport and antioxidants. They help the body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat. The specific content of vitamins in milk is listed in the Nutrient Content Tables in the Nutrition Facts section.
Milk contains the water soluble vitamins thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), vitamin C, and folate. Milk is a good source of thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin B12 . Milk contains small amounts of niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and folate and is not considered a major source of these vitamins in the diet.

Milk contains the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. The content level of fat soluble vitamins in dairy products depends on the fat content of the product. Reduced fat (2% fat), lowfat (1% fat), and skim milk must be fortified with vitamin A to be nutritionally equivalent to whole milk. 

Fortification of all milk with vitamin D is voluntary. Milk contains small amounts of vitamins E and K and is not considered a major source of these vitamins in the diet.

Minerals in Milk

Minerals have many roles in the body including enzyme functions, bone formation, water balance maintenance, and oxygen transport. The specific content of minerals in milk is listed in the Nutrient Content Tables in the Nutrition Facts section.

Milk is a good source of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and zinc. Many minerals in milk are associated together in the form of salts, such as calcium phosphate. In milk approximately 67% of the calcium, 35% of the magnesium, and 44% of the phosphate are salts bound within the casein micelle and the remainder are soluble in the serum phase. The fact that calcium and phosphate are associated as salts bound with the protein does not affect the nutritional availability of either calcium or phosphate.

Milk contains small amounts of copper, iron, manganese, and sodium and is not considered a major source of these minerals in the diet.

Effects of Heat Treatments & Light Exposure on the Vitamin & Mineral Content in Milk

The mild heat treatment used in the typical high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization of fluid milk does not appreciably affect the vitamin content. However, the higher heat treatment used in ultra high temperature (UHT) pasteurization for extended shelf combined with the increased storage life of these products does cause losses of some water-soluble vitamins. Thiamin is reduced from 0.45 to 0.42 mg/L, vitamin B 12 is reduced from 3.0 to 2.7 µg/L, and vitamin C is reduced from 2.0 to 1.8 mg/L (Potter et al., 1984). Riboflavin is a heat stable vitamin and is not affected by severe heat treatments.

Calcium phosphate will migrate in and out of the casein micelle with changes in temperature. This process is reversible at moderate temperatures. This does not affect the nutritional properties of milk minerals. At very high temperatures the calcium phosphate may precipitate out of solution which causes irreversible changes in the casein micelle structure.

Exposure to light will decrease the riboflavin and vitamin A content in milk. Milk should be stored in containers that provide barriers to light (opaque plastic or paperboard) to maximize vitamin retention.


Milk is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium. However, some common fallacies or myths about milk may encourage some people to restrict their intake. There is no scientific basis to the theory that milk encourages extra mucous production.
Milk is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium. It has long been recognised for its important role in bone health. Nutritionists recommend that milk and other dairy products should be consumed daily as part of a balanced diet.

There is some inaccurate information around in the general community about the health benefits of milk. Changing your milk intake on the basis of these myths may mean you are unnecessarily restricting this highly nutritious drink.

Milk contains many different nutrients

Milk and milk products contain a good balance of protein, fat and carbohydrate and are a very important source of essential nutrients, including:

  • calcium
  • riboflavin
  • phosphorous
  • vitamins A, D and B12
  • pantothenic acid.
Milk products also contain ‘high-quality proteins’ that are well suited to human needs. Milk proteins increase the value of poorer quality cereal and vegetable proteins in the diet by providing the amino acids these proteins lack.

Milk and health conditions

Australians tend to restrict dairy foods when they try to lose weight, believing them to be fattening. Dairy foods contain saturated fats, which have been associated with increased blood cholesterol levels. However, dairy foods (particularly low-fat products) are not a threat to good health if consumed in moderation as part of a well-balanced nutritious diet.

Some research findings include:
  • Osteoporosis – if milk and milk products are removed from the diet, it can lead to an inadequate intake of calcium. This is of particular concern for women and the elderly, who have high calcium needs. Calcium deficiency may lead to disorders like osteoporosis (a disease characterised by a loss of bone).
  • Colon cancer – some studies have found that people who regularly eat dairy products have a reduced risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Blood pressure – research in the US found that a high intake of fruits and vegetables, combined with low-fat dairy foods, will lower blood pressure more than fruits and vegetables alone.
  • Type 2 diabetes – a 10-year study of 3,000 overweight adults found that consuming milk and other milk products instead of refined sugars and carbohydrates may protect overweight young adults from developing type 2 diabetes.

Flavoured milk

Recent Australian and US studies reported that children who avoid milk tend to be fatter than children who drink milk. This may be because milk is being replaced by high-energy drinks such as fruit juice or soft drinks.

As children move into adolescence, the time when they need the most calcium, they tend to drink less milk and more sugary soft drinks. As milk is a healthier choice, it is worth encouraging children over two years of age to drink reduced-fat flavoured milk rather than soft drinks.

Milk and tooth decay

Milk and milk products are thought to protect against tooth decay. Eating cheese and other dairy products:
  • reduces oral acidity (which causes decay)
  • stimulates saliva flow
  • decreases plaque formation
  • decreases the incidence of dental caries (tooth decay).

Types of pasteurised milk

There are many types of milks on the market, including:
  • Full cream – full-cream milk contains around four per cent fat and is a source of vitamins A and D. For children up to the age of two years, full-cream milk is recommended.
  • Reduced fat – expect around half as much fat in reduced-fat milk as full cream. Children over the age of two years can drink reduced-fat milk.
  • Skim milk – contains less than one per cent fat. Children older than five years can safely consume skim milk. Both reduced-fat and skim milk have vitamin A and D added to replace the naturally occurring vitamins that are reduced when the fat is removed.
  • Calcium enriched – generally, milks that are enriched with extra calcium are also fat reduced. A 250 ml glass of milk contains 408–500 mg of calcium.
  • Flavoured – these milks can either be full cream or reduced fat. However, most varieties contain a lot of sugar.
  • UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated) milk – is treated with very high heat to allow milk to be stored for long periods.

Unpasteurised milk

Most milk on the market is pasteurised (heat treated then cooled). Milk that hasn’t been through this process should be avoided. While pasteurisation reduces the amount of some vitamins, such as vitamin C, it also kills bacteria. Unpasteurised milk is a health hazard because of the dangers of bacterial diseases.

(Of  course  the  societies  of  the  world  are  concerned  about  mass  production  of  milk  and  bacterial  problems.  Hence  mas-produced  store  bought  milk  will  be  pasteurized.  If  you  can  locally  get  safe  raw  milk,  trusting  the  source,  then  raw  natural  organic  milk  is  the  top  of  the  cream [pun  intended] - Keith Hunt)

Milk and mucous

Many people in Australia believe that nasal stuffiness is related, in part, to how much milk you drink. However, there is no scientific basis to this theory. Milk doesn’t encourage extra mucous production.

Cow’s milk versus goat’s milk

Some people switch to goat’s milk because of perceived sensitivities to cow’s milk. If a person has an allergic sensitivity, it is usually due to one or more of the proteins in milk. The proteins in goat’s milk are closely related to those in cow’s milk, so replacing one type of milk with the other usually doesn’t make any difference. Milk allergies are more common in very young children and most tend to grow out of them or build up a tolerance to milk.

Lactose intolerance

Lactose is a type of carbohydrate or sugar that naturally occurs in milk from any mammal, including humans. Normally, an enzyme in the small intestine called lactase breaks down lactose so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Some people don’t produce enough lactase – undigested lactose is broken up by the bacteria in their large intestine causing gas, bloating, pain and diarrhoea. This condition is called ‘lactose intolerance’.

You can be born lactose intolerant or develop it later in life. If you think you may be lactose intolerant, see your doctor.

Milk and milk products are highly nutritious, so people who suffer from lactose intolerance should not give them up entirely. You can still consume milk in moderate quantities. You can also buy lactose-free milk.

Most people can tolerate the amount of lactose in:
  • half a cup of milk
  • three quarters of a cup of ice cream
  • three quarters of a cup of yoghurt
  • half a cup of white sauce
  • three quarters of a cup of unripened cheeses like cottage or ricotta.

Some dairy foods contain less lactose

Some dairy foods contain less lactose than others and may be better for people who suffer from lactose intolerance. For example:
  • Fermented milk products, including some yoghurts, mature cheeses (like cheddar cheese, fetta and mozzarella) and butter, generally pose no tolerance problems. (However, butter is high in saturated fat and is not recommended for good heart health.)

  • Heated milk products, such as evaporated milk, seem to be better tolerated than unheated foods, because the heating process breaks down some of the lactose.
Foods that contain lactose are better tolerated if eaten with other foods or spread out over the day, rather than being eaten in large amounts at once.

Soy as an alternative

Soy foods are lactose free and a good substitute for milk or milk products if fortified with calcium. Soy milk, custard, yoghurt and cheese are now widely available in Australia, but check that they are calcium fortified.

(BUT  THE  SOY  BEANS  NEED  TO  BE  GMO  FREE,  WHICH  SAD  TO  SAY   IS  BECOMING  HARDER  AND  HARDER  TO  GET,  or  find  SOY foods  with  the  original  soy-bean  not  messed  around  with  by  humans  -  Keith Hunt)

Other sources of calcium

Although milk is an excellent source of calcium, it isn’t the only one. Other good sources include:
  • cheese, especially hard cheeses
  • yoghurt
  • calcium-fortified soy products
  • calcium-fortified cereals and orange juice
  • fish with edible bones, like canned salmon and sardines
  • some nuts (almonds, brazil nuts)
  • sesame seeds (and tahini)
  • dried fruit (figs, apricots)
  • dark green leafy vegetables (Asian greens like bok choy).

Daily calcium requirements

To meet the body’s daily calcium requirement, it is recommended that adults eat between two and a half to four serves of dairy products a day. One serve is equivalent to:
  • 250 mL (1 cup) milk – fresh, UHT long-life or reconstituted dried
  • 125 mL (1/2 cup) evaporated unsweetened milk
  • 200 g (3/4 cup or 1 small carton) yoghurt
  • 40 g (2 slices, or a 4x3x2 cm piece) hard cheese (such as cheddar)
  • 120 g ricotta cheese
People who do not eat any dairy products may have difficulty meeting their daily calcium requirements. They will need to pay special attention to other dietary sources of calcium.

Where to get help

  • Your doctor
  • Gastroenterologist (your doctor can refer you)
  • Dietitians Association of Australia Tel. 1800 812 942

Things to remember

  • Milk is an excellent source of calcium and other essential nutrients.
  • There are many modified milks available.
  • Lactose intolerance is caused by an inability to digest milk sugars, but most people can tolerate small amounts of milk.
  • Flavoured milks (reduced fat varieties, for children over two years) are preferable to soft drinks and fruit drinks.

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Want to know more?

Go to More information for support groups, related links and references.

This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:

Deakin University - Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences
(Logo links to further information)

Fact sheet currently being reviewed.
Last reviewed: April 2013
Content on this website is provided for education and information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional. Content has been prepared for Victorian residents and wider Australian audiences, and was accurate at the time of publication. Readers should note that, over time, currency and completeness of the information may change. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions.

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Milk is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium. However, some common fallacies or myths about milk may encourage some people to restrict their intake. There is no scientific basis to the theory that milk encourages extra mucous production.

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